SpectraCell Blog

Vitamin B12: Function, Deficiency Symptoms and Repletion

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Mon, Feb 28, 2011 @ 04:13 PM

Vitamin B12Function:

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is needed to form blood and immune cells, and support a healthy nervous system. A series of closely-related compounds known collectively as cobalamins or vitamin B12 are converted into active forms methylcobalamin or 5’-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. Methylcobalamin interacts with folate metabolism, preventing folate derivatives from being trapped in unusable states. Adenosylcobalamin is involved in the metabolism of odd-chain fatty acids and branchedchain amino acids.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B12 are both hematological (pernicious anemia) and neurological. A megaloblastic anemia may occur because the effects of the vitamin B12 deficiency on folate metabolism. Shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, irritability, sore tongue, decrease in blood cell counts (red, white and platelets) are all clinical signs of a vitamin B12 deficiency. Neurological symptoms are manifested as a progressive neuropathy, with loss of position sense and ataxia. If vitamin B12 repletion is not initiated, permanent neurological damage, including degeneration of nerves and spinal cord can result. Recent evidence suggests that mental symptoms of depression and fatigue are detectable before anemia develops. Vitamin B12 is necessary to prevent accumulation of homocysteine, a toxic metabolic byproduct linked to cardiovascular disease and connective tissue abnormalities. Hypochlorhydria and gastrointestinal disturbances are frequently associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

Repletion Information:

Dietary sources for cobalamins are strictly from animal foodstuffs. Vitamin B12 is not found in plant foodstuffs. Dietary supplements can also contain vitamin B12 The 1989 RDA for vitamin B12 is 2.0 μg for adults. No toxic effects of oral vitamin B12 intake have been demonstrated, even in doses over 1000 μg daily. Since the absorption and intracellular activation of oral vitamin B12 are frequently difficult, consideration should be given to injectable forms of vitamin B12. Some patients may require more frequent or larger doses than usual before repletion occurs.


Topics: SpectraCell, micronutrient testing, Homocysteine, Fatigue, Vitamin B12, deficiency, Depression, Neurology, Cobalamin, Metabolism

Intracellular Function of Essential Nutrients

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Fri, Oct 08, 2010 @ 04:15 PM

Apple-A-DayNutrient deficiencies may be induced by a variety of conditions, in addition to inadequate intake. With a functional deficiency, a nutrient may be present, but it may not be properly activated, it may not be properly localized, or it may not have sufficient cofactors to function at a normal level of activity. Underlying reasons for a functional nutrient deficiency include inefficiencies or deficiencies in the following:

  • absorption by the gastrointestinal tract
  • transport to the appropriate tissue
  • transport through the cell membrane into the cell
  • intracellular activation storage
  • concentration or activity of cofactors

Other factors contributing to nutrient deficiencies include intracellular inhibitors that may be present, tissues that may have increased metabolic needs, or hyper-excretion, such as loss zinc through sweat during intense physical exercise.

Thus, a functional deficiency includes anything that may reduce the concentration or the efficacy of a nutrient. No matter what the underlying cause, the result will be a defect in the biochemical pathways that depend upon the optimal function of that nutrient. A deficient or defective pathway may operate at a sub-optimal level for many months or even years before a clinical symptom may become apparent.

Because micronutrient testing evaluates the function of a nutrient rather than just the concentration present in blood or tissue, the clinical consequences of any of the problems listed above will be more likely to be detected by SpectraCell's micronutrient testing than by conventional serum concentration measurements.

Read more about nutritional deficiency testing HERE

Topics: micronutrients, micronutrient testing, deficiency, intracellular