SpectraCell Blog

Vitamin D Linked to Longer Telomeres, Suggests Study

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Wed, May 31, 2017 @ 01:59 PM


Telomere.pngTelomeres – the protective DNA caps on every chromosome which shorten over time as a cell ages – have been correlated with chronic diseases in hundreds of studies.  A shorter telomere equates to an aging cell, and the cumulative effect of this may manifest as the degenerative diseases commonly associated with aging, including heart disease, cancer and dementia.  Low vitamin D has also been linked to several chronic diseases.  In this study, researchers sought to link the two – low vitamin D and shorter telomeres.  Telomere length was measured via PCR (polymerase chain reaction) on 4260 American adults ranging in age from 20 years old to over 60.  In the age group of 40-59 years, blood levels of vitamin D were correlated to telomere length.  In other words, higher vitamin D = longer telomeres. 

In a different study on participants from the same government-sponsored  survey (NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), 4347 American adults were evaluated for vitamin D levels and telomere length.  After adjusting for common demographic factors (age, race, education), higher vitamin D was linked to longer telomeres.  However, after adjusting for common physical factors (smoking, BMI, activity levels), no correlation was seen.  This suggests that vitamin D may very well be correlated with telomere length, but other factors play such a big role in healthy aging (such as not smoking or getting regular exercise) that these factors make the vitamin D-telomere connection less clear.

Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Has a Modest Positive Association with Leukocyte Telomere Length in Middle-Aged US Adults. Link to ABSTRACT.

The association of telomere length and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in US adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Link to ABSTRACT. Link to FREE FULL TEXT. 



 

Topics: Vitamin D, telomere length, DNA, Anti-Aging, Longer Telomeres, Degenerative Diseases, Age Management

Nutrition Speaks: The Role of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Autism

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Tue, Apr 25, 2017 @ 12:06 PM

autism.jpgWhen people think of autism and nutrition, the first thing that comes to mind is often food sensitivities, especially given the widespread attention to the impact of certain additives and common triggers (such as wheat or dairy) on that condition. But it is worth considering that micronutrient levels can have a profound impact on autistic symptoms. The list below includes specific micronutrients suggested to have a role in the development and treatment of autism:

Vitamin D: High-dose vitamin D therapy reversed autistic behaviors in severely deficient children; maternal vitamin D deficiency may predispose children to autism.

Vitamin A: One cause of autism may be a defect in a retinoid receptor protein (G-alpha protein) that is critical for language processing, attention, and sensory perception. Evidence suggests that natural vitamin A fixes this protein defect in autistics.

Folate: Oral folate therapy can resolve symptoms of autism in some cases, particularly in autistics with genes that impair folate-dependent enzymes.

Glutamine: Blood levels of this amino acid - which acts as a neurotransmitter - are particularly low in autistics. Glutamine also helps prevent leaky gut syndrome, which can exacerbate autistic symptoms.

Vitamin C: Improves symptom severity and sensory motor scores in autistic patients possibly due to interaction with dopamine synthesis; it also has a strong sparing effect on glutathione.

Glutathione & Cysteine: Both are commonly deficient in autistic patients. Low antioxidant status impairs detoxification and methylation processes, and has been linked to neurological symptoms in autism, which is often considered an oxidative stress disorder.

Vitamin B1: Deficiency linked to delayed language development; supplementation may benefit autistic patients.

Vitamin B12: Low B12 impairs methylation (detoxification), which can cause the neurological damage responsible for many autistic symptoms. B12 deficiency can cause optic neuropathy and vision loss in autistics; B12 raises cysteine and glutathione levels.

Vitamin B6: Cofactor for the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine; conversion of B6 to its active form is compromised in many autistics. Supplementation trials with B6 resulted in better eye contact, improved speech, and fewer self-stimulatory behavior in autistics. Some consider B6 in combination with magnesium to be a breakthrough treatment for autism.

Magnesium: Cofactor for the neurotransmitters that affect social reactions and emotion; autistics have low levels. Magnesium improves the effectiveness of B6 therapy.

Zinc: Eliminates mercury from brain tissue. The zinc/ copper ratio is particularly low in autistic kids, and low zinc impairs metallothionein, a protein that removes heavy metals from the body.

Carnitine: Transports fatty acids into cells. Low carnitine status, a common feature of autism, impairs the ability to use fatty acids for learning and social development.

For a copy of SpectraCell's Nutrition Correlation chart on autism, click here. 

To evaluate your micronutrient status, order your micronutrient test today!

GET TESTED


 

Topics: Cysteine, zinc, folate, Vitamin D, Carnitine, Magnesium, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, autism, Glutamine, Glutathione, Vitamin B1, nutrition and autism, nutrition speaks, autistic symptoms, micronutrient deficiencies, autism speaks

Micronutrients: The Key to Effective Weight Loss

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Wed, Jan 11, 2017 @ 12:30 PM

weight-management-ebook.jpgWe’ve all heard the proverbial advice for achieving a healthy body and maintaining our weight: exercise and “eat right.”  But for those who really want to delve further into the science behind an enviable metabolism, we offer a list of vitamins with an explanation of their role in the body’s ability to burn fat and build muscle.

  1. Vitamin A: This vitamin is particularly good at regulating how genes are expressed. Although genes do determine to an extent how the body stores or burns fat, our genes are, simply stated, not our destiny. Two persons with the same gene may express it very differently, depending on their individual cellular environment. This is where vitamin A enters the picture. It can actually enhance the expression of certain genes that lower a person’s tendency to store food as fat. If one is vitamin A deficient, s/he may be pre-disposed to storing fat tissue. On the other hand, correcting a vitamin A deficiency may have a different, more positive effect, as studies have indicated that vitamin A may reduce the size of fat cells.
  1. Vitamin D: Similar to vitamin A, vitamin D (commonly referred to as the “sunshine vitamin”) affects genetic expression, including the way that fat cells develop. A vitamin D deficiency is strongly linked to poor carbohydrate metabolism: instead of efficiently burning carbohydrate for fuel (which consequently helps impart energy and mental focus), the body instead stores carbohydrate as fat. Correcting a vitamin D deficiency can boost metabolism by reversing this deleterious effect.  
  1. Vitamin E: This micronutrient affects metabolism by inhibiting immature fat cells from developing into mature fat cells, which are more “stubborn,” metabolically speaking. The cumulative effect of this is a reduction in fat storage.
  1. Vitamin B3Also called niacin, vitamin B3 can increase the hormone adiponectin, which is secreted by fat cells. Adiponectin’s main function is to signal cells to burn fuel. It also has a role in helping muscles use glucose for energy rather than storing it as fat.
  1. Vitamin B5: Some evidence suggests that vitamin B5 (AKA pantothenate or pantothenic acid) might be helpful for weight loss because it has been associated with less hunger when dieting. At the cellular level, vitamin B5 activates the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which breaks down fat cells.

This list is by no means exhaustive: in fact, there are multiple micronutrient influences on weight loss. These micronutrients work both individually and synergistically, and repletion often promotes clinical benefits throughout the body. It should come as no surprise that micronutrient adequacy also supports heart health and energy levels. Therefore, discovering (then correcting) micronutrient deficiencies becomes a critical first step in improving overall health. 

 Tired of not getting the results you want? Interested in learning how you can improve the efficacy of your weight management routine? Get tested and find out how your micronutrient status stacks up!

GET TESTED

Topics: micronutrients, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B3, Vitamins and weight loss, Role of micronutrients in weight management, Effective weight loss, Effective weight management

Calcium the MOST abundant mineral in the body!

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Wed, Jan 22, 2014 @ 12:54 PM

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, withcalcium 99% residing in bones and teeth. As a component of hard tissues, calcium fulfills a structural role to maintain body size and act as attachments for musculoskeletal tissues. The remaining 1% of calcium is present in blood and soft tissues.

Functions of non-skeletal calcium include: enzyme activation, second messenger roles (transmitting hormonal information), blood clotting, cell and cell organelle membrane function (stabilization and transport), nerve impulse transmission and muscular contraction, tone, and irritability. Calcium levels in the blood are maintained within very strict limits by dietary intake, hormonal regulation and a rapidly exchangeable pool in bone tissue.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Calcium deficiencies are both acute and chronic. Acute calcium deficiency relates to lack of ionized calcium, causing increased muscular and nervous irritability, muscle spasms, muscle cramps and tetany. Chronic calcium deficiency manifests as bone loss disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults, rickets in children), tooth decay, periodontal disease, depression and possibly hypertension. Those at risk for calcium deficiency include: malnourished, malabsorption and bone loss disorders. Conditions which are known to decrease calcium uptake or distribution are: decreased gastric acidity, vitamin D deficiency, high fat diets, high oxalate intake from rhubarb, spinach, chard and beet greens, high phytic acid intake from whole grains, high fiber intake, immobilization, faster gastrointestinal motility, psychological stress, thiazide diuretic therapy, aluminum compounds (aluminum-containing antacids, drugs, some parenteral feeding solutions).

View our webinar on Clinical Implications of vitamin D and calcium deficiencies, as well as download a copy of this case study highlighting 52 year old female with muscle aches all include a deficiency in calcium.

GET TESTED!

Topics: SpectraCell, micronutrient testing, Vitamin D, Calcium, micronutrient test, micronutrient, vitamin deficiencies

What YOU didn't know about vitamin D

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Tue, Oct 29, 2013 @ 01:52 PM

vitamin D Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate. Vitamin D is the principle regulator of calcium homeostasis in the body.  It is essential for skeletal development and bone mineralization.  Inadequate exposure to sunlight contributes to vitamin D deficiency.  Vitamin D deficiency in adults can lead to osteoporosis.  Increasing evidence is accumulating that vitamin D may also contribute to antioxidant function by inhibiting lipid peroxidation.  The mechanism of the antioxidant effect is unknown.  Vitamin D is also needed for adequate blood levels of insulin and it also appears to demonstrate both immune enhancing and immunosuppressive effects.

 

Vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease
  • Cognitive impairment in older adults
  • Severe asthma in children
  • Cancer

Repletion Information:

Supplemental vitamin D is available as vitamin D2 or vitamin D3.  Vitamin D3 is considered to be the more biologically active form of the vitamin and at this time is the form most recommended for repletion. 

Download SpectraCell's Nutrition Correlation chart referencing the correlation between vitamin D with Estrogen and Testosterone and view our webinar on Clinical Implications of vitamin D and Calcium Deficiencies.

For more information on how to check your vitamin levels click here.

Topics: SpectraCell, Vitamin D, Heart Disease, deficiencies, health, Dr. Ron Grabowski, Heart Attack, micronutrient, vitamin deficiencies, Heart Health

Do the Prescriptions YOU take deplete your nutritional status?

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Wed, Jul 24, 2013 @ 03:34 PM

When a person takes prescription drugs or over the counter medication chances are that they can prescription depletions Page 1 resized 600 be affecting their nutrient levels. Below are some of the possible deficiencies that are correlated with each corresponding drug.

Antacids/Ulcer medications

  • vitamin B12 - Anemia, depression, tiredness, weakness, increased cardiovascular risk

  • Folic Acid - Birth defects, cervical dysplasia, anemia, heart disease, cancer risk

  • vitamin D - osteoporosis, muscle weakness, hearing loss

  • Calcium - Osteoporosis, heart and blood pressure irregularities, tooth decay

  • Iron - Anemia, weakness, fatigue, hair loss, brittle nails

  • Zinc - weak immunity, wound healing, sense of smell/taste, sexual dysfunction


Antibiotics

  • B vitamins, Vitamin K - short term depletion affects are minimal, but failure to re-inoculate the GI tract with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) often results in dysbiosis which causes gas, bloating, decreases digestion & absorption of nutrients, and also may lead to a variety of other health problems.

  • Calcium - osteoporosis, heart & blood pressure irregularities, tooth decay

  • magnesium - cardiovascular problems, asthma, osteoporosis, cramps, PMS

  • Iron - slow wound healing, fatigue, anemia

  • vitamin B6 - depression, sleep disturbance, increased cardiovascular disease risk

  • zinc - weak immunity, wound healing, sense of smell/taste, sexual dysfunction


Cholesterol drugs

  • Coenzyme Q10 - Various cardiovascular problems, weak immune system, low energy


Female Hormones

  • Vitamin B6 - depression, sleep disturbance, increased cardiovascular disease risk

  • Folic acid - birth defects, cervical dysplasia, anemia, cardiovascular disease

  • vitamin B1 - depression, irritability, memory loss, muscle weakness, edema

  • vitamin B2 - problems with skin, eyes, mucous membranes and nerves

  • vitamin B6 - depression, sleep disturbances, increased cardiovascular disease risk

  • vitamin B12 - anemia, depression, tiredness, weakness, increased cardiovascular risk

  • vitamin C - lowered immune system, easy bruising, poor wound healing

  • magnesium - cardiovascular problems, asthma, osteoporosis, cramps, PMS

  • selenium - lower immunity, reduced antioxidant protection'

  • zinc - weak immunity, wound healing, sense of smell/taste, sexual dysfunction


Anti-Inflammatories

  • calcium - osteoporosis, heart and blood pressure irregularities, tooth decay

  • vitamin D - osteoporosis, muscle weakness, hearing loss

  • magnesium - cardiovascular problems, asthma, osteoporosis, cramps, PMS

  • zinc - weak immunity, wound healing, sense of smell/taste, sexual dysfunction

  • vitamin C - lowered immunity, easy bruising, poor wound healing

  • vitamin B6 - depression, sleep disturbances,increased cardiovascular disease risk

  • vitamin B12 - anemia, depressioon, tiredness, weakness, increased cardiovascular risk

  • Folic Acid - birth defects, cervical dysplasia, anemia, cardiovascular disease

  • Selenium - lower immunity, reduced antioxidant protection

  • chromium - elevated blood sugar, cholesterol & triglycerides, diabetes risk

  • vitamin B5 - fatigue, listlessness, and possible problems with skin, liver and nerves

For a complete list of drugs and their correlating deficiencies click here

If you would like to check your nutrient levels click here

Topics: SpectraCell, micronutrients, Coenzyme Q10, Antidepressants, Cancer, autoimmune diseases, zinc, Vitamin D, Carnitine, Magnesium, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin B6, B Vitamins, Folic Acid, Antioxidants, Fibromyalgia, Cholesterol, Cardiovascular Health, Heart Disease, Vitamin K, Vitamin B12, Chronic Disease, diabetes, immune system, E-zinc, Vitamins, Calcium, Fertility, PMS, deficiencies, chronic fatigue and nutrition, health, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Depression, Diet, Digestion, Stress, Vitamin B1, micronutrient test, Inflammation, Vitamin B5, High Blood Pressure, Vitamin B2, Iron, Nutritional Deficiency, Cancer Prevention, Heart Health, Gastrointestinal Tract, Hypothyroidism, Allergies, Wound Healing, Vitamin B3, Antihistamines, cardiovascular disease, Nutrient, hypertension, Women's Health

SpectraCell Case Study - Female with Multiple Conditions!

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Thu, Jul 18, 2013 @ 03:03 PM

In 2006, a 45 year old female with complaints of multiple conditions including hypertension,case study MNT dyslipidemias, insomnia, athralgias, mitral valve prolapse, GERD and HSVI, tried SpectraCell testing only to reveal  deficiencies in key vitamins and minerals. 

This patient experienced malaise fatigue (x3-4years), joint pain, thin nails, sleep onset insomnia and hot flashes.  She had been taking Micardis (40/12.5), Ibuprofen (800mg as needed), vitamin D3 (1,000IU), Lasix (20mg as needed) and Valtrex (500mg daily) for prophylaxis.  Spectracell's micronutrient test revealed deficiencies in vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, CoQ10 and antioxidants.  Based upon her deficiencies, she was administered the following treatment protocol:

  • 1,000 IU/day of vitamin D3
  • 5,000 IU/day of vitamin A
  • 25 mg/day of zinc
  • 300-400 mg/day of magnesium
  • 100 mg/day of CoQ10
  • 400 IU d-alpha tocopherol & antioxidants of vitamin E
  • 100 MCG/day of selenium 

Clinical Outcome:
Fatigue/tiredness improved significantly - she can now do exercises at the gym.  Her nails became stronger and don't break easily.  Joint pains have decreased significantly.  Blood pressure is more controlled.  Insomnia improved and the hot flashes minimized.  Increased focus and concentration at work.  Improved memory compared to before.  Overall quality of life improved significantly.  She can now pursue her hobby (gardening) with enthusiasm and interest.

Follow up Nutritional Testing:
The previous deficiencies were corrected.  New deficiencies were far fewer than before - vitamin B12, selenium and antioxidants.

Conclusion:
She stated she had tried treatments in the past before SpectraCell's micronutrient testing, but nothing had helped her.  Following the testing and then replenishing with supplements in the appropriate dosages, has brought significant positive changes in her day to day functions.

SpectraCell Laboratories is combining the Micronutrient Testing and MTHFR Genotyping as a special package promotion.  To find out more CLICK HERE!




Topics: micronutrients, micronutrient testing, Coenzyme Q10, Autoimmunity, autoimmune diseases, zinc, Vitamin D, Magnesium, Vitamin A, Selenium, B Vitamins, Antioxidants, Minerals, hypertension, Aging, athralgias, dyslipidemias, HSVI, GERD, insomnia, mitral valve prolapse

Vitamins Can Help with Weight Management!

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Tue, Jul 02, 2013 @ 10:56 AM

Asparagine - The amino acid increases insulin sensitivity which helps the body store energy Weight management in muscle instead of storing it as body fat.

Biotin - Boosts metabolism by improving glycemic control (stabilizes blood sugar) and lowering insulin, a hormone that promotes fat formation.

Carnitine - Carries fatty acids into the cell so they can be burned for fuel; Helps reduce visceral adiposity (belly fat).

Calcium - Inhibits the formation of fat cells; Also helps oxidize (burn) fat cells.

Lipoic Acid - Improves glucose uptake into cells, which helps a person burn carbohydrates more efficiently.

Chromium - Makes the body more sensitive to insulin, helping to reduce body fat and increase lean muscle.

Vitamin B5 - Taking B5 lowers body weight by activating lipoprotein lipases, an enzyme that burns fat cells.  One study linked B5 supplementation to less hunger when dieting.

Magnesium - Low magnesium in cells impairs a person's ability to use glucose for fuel, instead of storing it as fat; Correcting a magnesium deficiency stimulates metabolism by increasing insulin sensitivity.  Magnesium may also inhibit fat absorption.

Glutamine - Reduces fat mass by improving glucose uptake into muscle.

Cysteine - Supplementation with this antioxidant reduced body fat in obese patients.

Inositol - Supplementation may increase adiponectin levels.

Vitamin B3(Niacin) - Treatment with B3 increases adiponectin, a weight-loss hormone secreted by fat cells; Niacin-bound chromium supplements helped reduced body weight in clinical trials.

Vitamin A - Enhances expression of genes that reduce a person's tendency to store food as fat; Reduces the size of fat cells.

Vitamin E - Inhibits pre-fat cells from changing into mature fat cells, thus reducing body fat.

Vitamin D - Deficiency strongly linked to poor metabolism of carbohydrates; Genes that are regulated by vitamin D may alter the way fat cells form in some people.

Vitamin K - Poor vitamin K status linked to excess fat tissue; Vitamin K helps metabolize sugars.

Zinc - Deficiency of zinc reduces leptin, a beneficial hormone that regulates appetite, which is reversed by zinc repletion.

Download your own copy of the Nutrient Correlation Wheel on Weight Management

 

Topics: Asparagine, Cysteine, zinc, Vitamin D, Carnitine, Magnesium, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Calcium, Lipoic Acid, biotin, inositol, Glutamine, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B3, Chromium

Sleep Apnea and the Correlation with Nutrients and Minerals

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Thu, Jun 13, 2013 @ 10:52 AM

Cysteine - Oral supplementation with cysteine, the precursor to glutathione, has therapeuticSleep Apnea, Nutrient Correlation Wheel potential for sleep apnea.  Snore time and duration were significantly reduced for patients treated with N-acetyl cysteine compared to untreated sleep apnea patients.

Antioxidant Status - It is well documented that sleep apnea patients have both reduced antioxidant capacity and higher levels of oxidative stress than controls.

Vitamin C - Improves endothelial function (blood vessel health) in sleep apnea patients to levels seen in people without sleep apnea.

Vitamin E - Mitigates the oxidative stress seen in sleep apnea patients; Works synergistically with Vitamin C.

Vitamin A - Sleep apnea patients have low retinol (vitamin A); Retinol suppresses the growth of vascular smooth muscle, a process that causes blood vessels to clog, linking low vitamin A levels to the cardiovascular complications seen in sleep apnea patients.

Vitamin D - People with sleep apnea have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency; The worse the apnea, the more severe the deficiency; Evidence suggests low vitamin D worsens sleep apnea's negative effect on heart disease risk.

Selenium - In one case report, selenium supplementation completely stopped snoring caused by non-obesity sleep apnea; Selenium's role as a potent antioxidant may reduce the oxidative stress seen in sleep apnea patients.

Copper - Considered a strong predictor of oxidative stress in sleep apnea patients; Copper's role as a key cofactor in the powerful antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) explains this; SOD is very low in apnea patients.

Minerals - The trace minerals zinc, copper; magnesium, manganese and selenium are critical cofactors for the major antioxidant enzymes, which are important in repairing cellular damage caused by hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in sleep apnea.

Glutathione - Low levels linked to sleep apnea; This powerful antioxidant helps repair liver damage caused by sleep apnea.

Click to download your own copy of the Sleep Apnea Nutrient Correlation Wheel

Topics: micronutrients, micronutrient testing, Cysteine, Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Selenium, B Vitamins, Copper, Antioxidants, diagnostic tools, deficiencies, Glutathione, Minerals, micronutrient test, Dr. Fred Crawford, Sleep Apnea

Fertility Awareness Week - SpectraCell Female Fertility Chart

Posted by SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. on Wed, Apr 24, 2013 @ 01:52 PM

Folate - Protects genes during rapid cell division which increases likelihood of a healthy 389 Female  Fertility Wheel 2.13 Page 1embryo (via methylation of DNA); Deficiency raises homocysteine which damages reproductive cells.

Vitamin B6  & B12 - Both are needed to convert toxic homocysteine to a benign form; Low homocysteine levels linked to a better chance of pregnancy.

Vitamin C - Increases serum progesterone levels; Induces ovulation in some women; Enhances effect of the fertility drug clomiphene.

Vitamin D - Higher levels linked to better success rates of IVF (in vitro fertilization); Influences production of the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone.

Vitamin E - Protects reproductive cells (follicles); May improve endometrial response (ability of fertilized egg to implant into uterine wall properly) during IVF.

Selenium - Deficiency implicated in miscarriage and infertility; In one trial, 100% of infertile women achieved pregnancy after supplemenation.

Glutathione - Protects eggs (fertilized or not) from damage by reactive oxygen species; Protective action of follicle stimulating hormone on embryonic development is due largely to glutathione synthesis.

Cysteine - N-acetyl cysteine can improve ovulation and pregnancy rates in women with infertility due to PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) that do not respond to fertility drugs; Improves viability of endometrial cells in vitro; Precurso to glutathione.

Antioxidant Status - Reproductive cells, including embryos, are very susceptible to damage from oxidative stress due to the rapid rate of growth; Low antioxidant status can cause infertility or miscarriage.

Minerals - Several enzymes needed to protect a woman's reproductive organs (such as superoxide dismutase) are dependent on the trace elements, zinc, copper and magnesium.

Click here to download your own copy of the Female Fertility Wheel

 

Topics: micronutrient testing, Cysteine, folate, Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, Vitamin B6, B Vitamins, Antioxidants, Vitamin B12, Fertility, deficiencies, deficiency, Minerals